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Determining the Size & Chemical Composition of Tattoo Ink Nanoparticles
Postnova Analytics have published an application study detailing how the technique of Field-Flow Fractionation-ICP-MS can be used to study the size and chemical composition of tattoo ink nanoparticles.
According to a recent report from the European Commission Joint Research Centre** - whilst some 12% of Europeans have tattoos, little is known about the long term effects of the chemicals in the inks. Commonly tattoo inks contain metallic impurities that can result in adverse skin reactions, including infections and allergies, right after tattooing or even years later.
In the application study the Field Flow Fractionation (FFF) technique was used to reduce the complexity of tattoo inks containing several different toxic metals. Using a Postnova AF2000 FFF system the researchers sorted the tattoo ink constituents by particle size using the interplay between crossflow field separation force and diffusion. Then using online light scattering and ICP/MS detectors, coupled to the FFF system, they were able to determine the particle size and elemental composition of individual components in the ink much more accurately than had been previously possible with non-separated tattoo ink samples.
The researchers found titanium dioxide, copper and aluminium oxide in nanoparticles in both solid and dissolved form in several of the tattoo inks under study. The investigated tattoo inks were also shown to contain chromium and nickel, metals known to cause bad skin reactions and cutaneous allergies post tattooing.
This study demonstrates the excellent suitability of the hyphenation of Field Flow Fractionation with light scattering (MALS) and ICP-MS for the comprehensive characterization of four different tattoo inks. Besides particle size distributions obtained from MALS data evaluation, ICP-MS additionally allows statements on the elemental distributions of various metals as a function of the respective particle sizes. This provides a valuable insight into the composition of tattoo inks, thereby facilitating the reliable identification and quantification of possibly allergenic ingredients.
Founded in 1997, Postnova Analytics is the inventor and leading international supplier of Field-Flow Fractionation (FFF) systems for markets including biopharmaceuticals, polymers, materials, nanotechnology and environmental sciences. Leveraging its unique and patented modular FFF - Light Scattering Platform, Postnova has been able to provide high performance solutions to a wide range of applications. Today the company's growing product portfolio includes Flow FFF, Centrifugal FFF, Thermal FFF, Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC), MALS and DLS Light Scattering. Postnova is located and headquartered in Landsberg am Lech (Germany) and has subsidiaries in the USA, UK and Finland. These offices in conjunction with a highly qualified and trained distribution network provides informed local support to customers worldwide.